Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules. Coronavirus can also complicate implementation as manufacturers adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. In the Drug Schedule, the FDA will assess Mexico`s and Canada`s ability to protect secret trade information. If, after these assessments are completed, the FDA confirms that Mexico and Canada are in a position to protect confidential information, the Pharmaceutical Annex requires the contracting parties to establish mechanisms for the exchange of confidential information on drug inspections between them. This is an improvement over NAFTA and will improve public health. Agriculture, in particular, has seen a boost. Canada is the largest importer of U.S. agricultural products, and Canadian agricultural trade with the United States has more than tripled since 1994, as has Canada`s overall agricultural exports to NAFTA partners.
The pact catalyzed Mexico`s transition from one of the world`s most protectionist economies to one of the most trade-friendly. Mexico had dismantled many of its trade barriers after joining the WTO`s 1986 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986, but it still had an average level of tariffs before NAFTA [PDF] of 10%. In addition to the original NAFTA provisions, the USMCA borrows significant credits under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its willingness to implement the agreement and joined Canada.  The agreement came into force on July 1, 2020.     The second parallel agreement is the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC), which established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) in 1994. The CEC is responsible for strengthening regional cooperation in the environmental field, reducing potential trade and environmental conflicts and promoting effective enforcement of environmental legislation. It also facilitates public cooperation and participation in efforts to promote conservation, protection and improvement of the North American environment. It consists of three main components: the Council (Minister of the Environment), the Joint Advisory Committee of Governments (JPAC) and the Secretariat, which is headquartered in Montreal. It has an annual budget of $9 million, with Canada, Mexico and the United States contributing $3 million per year and settled by consensus (non-majority). On December 19, 2019, the U.S.
House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended.”   An April 2019 International Trade Commission analysis of the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification), the agreement would increase U.S. real GDP by 0.35 percent and total U.S. employment by 0.12% (176,000 jobs).   The analysis cited by another Congressional Research Service study showed that the agreement would not have a measurable effect on employment, wages or overall economic growth.  In the summer of 2019, Larry Kudlow, Trump`s chief economic adviser (the director of the National Economic Council at Trump White House), made unfounded statements about the likely economic impact of the agreement and overstated forecasts related to jobs and GDP growth.
 The USMCA sets the highest level of all